step 3.3. Risk Points
Compared with men with BMI? 25 kg/m 2 , the age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis was over four-fold higher in those with BMI < 25 (odds ratio (OR) 4.4 (1.51, ) in age-adjusted model (Table 3). The association between BMI and osteopenia was similar among overweight/obese and normal weight men, although not statistically significant (Table 3).
Each other Body https://sugardaddydates.org/sugar-daddies-usa/ny/buffalo/ mass index and you may lbs was indeed synchronised having BMD, and you may BMC indicators as well as the most powerful Pearson’s relationship coefficients was discovered anywhere between lbs and you will BMC altogether cool and you will trochanter countries and the weakest of them had been between Body mass index and femoral shoulder BMC. The brand new correlations ranging from many years and you may BMD and you will BMC symptoms was basically bad (Table 4).
Age-modified ratio regarding BMD and you can BMC type explained because of the Body mass index and you can lbs try found when you look at the Dining table 5. Pounds tended to reveal better variations in BMD and you will BMC distribution anyway the brand new analyzed skeletal web sites as compared to Bmi. This was shown from the steeper slope (?) of your particular linear regression outlines. The greatest difference between BMD and you can BMC shipment seemed within trochanter BMC accompanied by lumbar BMC getting lbs. Lbs is a vital predictor out of BMD and you will BMC type inside the more mature Iranian boys.
In this study, both BMI and weight were associated with BMD, and obesity significantly decreased the risk for osteoporosis in men. These results are consistent with most previous studies, particularly in postmenopausal women, which indicated that lower BMI and weight were associated with lower BMD. Prospective studies found that the early postmenopausal women who have low BMI lose more bones compared to those with higher BMI tertiles [4, 8]. In other cross-sectional studies, however, thinness is related to both osteoporosis and increased fracture risk [10, 11]. Iqbal et al. found that low BMI is a good indicator for referral of women less than 60 years old for measurements of BMD. Similar studies also reported a consistent finding that lower BMI was associated with lower BMD [5, 6, 28]. In a study similar to ours, those with lower BMI were at higher risk of low BMD . The Studies of National Osteoporosis Foundation and others suggested that low BMI should be included in the risk assessment tools for evaluation of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture risk [29–31]. We found that men with BMI < 25 had 4.4 (95% CI 1.5, 12.8) times higher age-adjusted risk of osteoporosis than men with BMI ? 25. In contrast, Steinschneider et al. in a cross-sectional study reported that the correlation between BMD at the femoral neck and BMI was highly positive among postmenopausal women. A hospital-based study conducted in elderly men reported that overweight and obese men were more likely to have osteoporosis and osteopenia . The possible explanation for the discrepancies between these results might be related to populations, research designs, sampling methods, and methodological differences.
The newest elements in which fatty tissue exerts positive effects with the BMD updates commonly entirely obvious. The latest putative mechanism value regarding adipose tissue for skeletal integrity probably stays in the fresh role of many adipokines into the bones remodeling through effect on one another development and resorption. Recently, bone could have been considered an enthusiastic endocrine organ affecting pounds manage and you will glucose homoeostasis from the procedures away from bone-derived facts including osteocalcin and you may osteopontin [23, 34–36]. The latest putative crosstalk anywhere between body weight and the skeleton constitutes a great homoeostatic opinions program in which adipokines and you may molecules released because of the osteoblasts and you will osteoclasts show the web link out-of an energetic bones-adipose axis [34–36]. Being obese is additionally associated with BMD by sales out of androgen to the hormone estrogen , and this advances limbs mass in both folk [38, 39] and you can maintains healthy plasma degrees of insulin and you can managing facts along with insulin-like increases factor-1, leptin, and adiponectin . On the other hand, carrying excess fat brings padding into hip in the event of a fall . Yet not, this new systems in which each one of these incidents occur continue to be unclear.